Body surveillance and body shame in college men: Are men who self-objectify less hopeful?
Sex Roles, 69, 19-41, July 2013
Brian P. Cole, Ph.D. Dept of Professional Psychology and Family Therapy
M. Meghan Davidson Ph.D., Sarah J Gervais Ph.D.
The current study examined self-objectification and hope in a sample of
undergraduate men from a Midwestern university in the United States
(N=227). Specifically, an online survey utilizing self-report measures
examined the associations between body surveillance, body shame, trait
hope, social relationship hope, and romantic relationship hope were
considered through the lenses of Objectification Theory and the Broaden
and Build Theory of Positive Emotions. Consistent with Hypothesis 1,
bivariate correlations showed that more body surveillance was associated
with less trait agency, less trait pathways, less social relationship
pathways, and less romantic relationship pathways. As well, more body
shame was associated with less trait agency, less trait pathways, less
social relationship pathways, less romantic relationship agency, and
less romantic relationship pathways. Additionally, consistent with
Hypothesis 2 and the model proposed by Objectification Theory, body
shame explained relations between body surveillance and hope,
specifically, trait agency, social relationship pathways, romantic
relationship agency, and romantic relationship pathways in a path
analysis. This work fills an important gap in the current literature, as
it is the only study to date that examines relations between
self-objectification and hope, and furthers objectification research
among men. Results are discussed within the context of Objectification
Theory and the Broaden and Build Theory of Positive Emotions.
Implications and future directions are discussed.