Familiarity From Orthographic Information: Extensions of the Recognition Without Identification Effect
Memory & Cognition, 35, 107-112., November 2007
Marianne E. Lloyd, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
J.K. Miller and D.L. Westerman
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of letter
location information in recognition memory judgments. The experiments
used the recognition without identification paradigm (Peynircioˇglu,
1990), in which participants first attempt to identify the test item
and then make a recognition decision as to whether or not the item was
studied. In these studies, items that are not identified but that
correspond to items that were presented are typically still rated as
more likely to have been studied than those that were not presented.
The present experiments demonstrated this finding with a variant of the
conjunction lure paradigm. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were
tested with word fragments that were made from the letters of two
words. When the letters were from studied items, fragments were rated
higher than when the test items were derived from two unstudied items,
or one studied item and one unstudied item, suggesting that recognition
without identification is prone to the same types of errors as
recognition with identification. Results are discussed in terms of
familiarity effects in recognition memory.